Monotropa hypopitys, also known as Dutchman's Pipe, Yellow Bird's-nest or Pinesap, is a herbaceous perennial plant, formerly classified in the family Monotropaceae, but now included within the Ericaceae. It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but is generally scarce or rare, and is endangered in many areas.
Unlike most plants, it does not contain chlorophyll; it is a myco-heterotroph, getting its food through parasitism upon fungi rather than photosynthesis. Thus it is capable of living in very dark conditions, such as the floor of a deep forest, because it does not need any sunlight.
It grows 10–35 cm tall with a single unbranched stem; all parts of the plant are pale yellowish white to reddish-tinged. The leaves are reduced to 5–10 mm long scales, which cover most of the stem. The flowers are pendulous, 9–12 mm long, produced in a cluster of 2–11 together at the apex of the stem. It flowers between early summer and mid autumn; plants that flower in summer tend to be yellow, while those that flower in autumn are more often reddish.
The species name is from Latinized Greek hypo-, "under", and pitys, "pine", referring to where the Pinesap often grows. However, Linnaeus misspelled it hypopithys. Many authorities have followed his spelling. On the other hand, it has been stated that the spelling "is generally treated as correctable to 'hypopitys'", as followed by other authorities. The variability of the species in the colour of the stem and flowers, and in the number of flowers per stem, has led to an extensive synonymy for the species; synonyms include Hypopitys americana, H. fimbriata, H. insignata, H. lanuginosa, H. latisquama, H. monotropa, Monotropa chinensis, M. hypophegea, M. lanuginosa, M. latisquama, M. multiflora and M. taiwaniana.
Notes and references
- ^ IPNI Plant Name Details, International Plant Names Index, 2005, http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=163883-2&back_page=%2Fipni%2FeditSimplePlantNameSearch.do%3Ffind_wholeName%3DMonotropa%2Bhypopitys%26output_format%3Dnormal, retrieved 2009-08-08
- ^ USDA, NRCS (2009), Plants profile for Monotropa hypopithys (pinesap), National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOHY3, retrieved 2009-08-08
- ^ ITIS Standard Report Page: Monotropa hypopithys, 2009-06-24, http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=503871, retrieved 2009-08-08
- ^ Iqbal Dar, M., Monotropa hypopithys in Flora of Pakistan, eFloras.org, http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242413733, retrieved 2009-08-08
- ^ Monotropa hypopitys in the Linnaean Typification Project, The National History Museum, 2009, http://www.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/research-curation/research/projects/linnaean-typification/detail.dsml?ID=592400&listPageURL=list%2edsml%3fVarqtype%3dstarts%2bwith%26CVarqtype%3dstarts%2bwith%26CGenusqtype%3dstarts%2bwith%26CSpeciesqtype%3dstarts%2bwith%26Species%3dhypopitys%26sort%3dGenus%252cSpecies%26Speciesqtype%3dstarts%2bwith%26Genus%3dMonotropa%26Genusqtype%3dstarts%2bwith%26CSspqtype%3dstarts%2bwith, retrieved 2009-08-08
- ^ Qin, Haining; Stevens, Peter F.; Wallace, Gary D. (2005), Monotropa hypopitys in Flora of China, eFloras.org, http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200016135, retrieved 2009-08-08