The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a large marine mammal which, together with the manatees, is one of four living species of the order Sirenia. It is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongidae; its closest modern relative, Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), was hunted to extinction in the 18th century. It is also the only sirenian in its range, which spans the waters of at least 37 countries throughout the Indo-Pacific, though the majority of dugongs live in the northern waters of Australia between Shark Bay and Moreton Bay. The dugong is the only strictly-marine herbivorous mammal, as all species of manatee utilize fresh water to some degree.
Like all modern sirenians, the dugong has a fusiform body with no dorsal fin or hind limbs, instead possessing paddle-like forelimbs used to maneuver itself. It is easily distinguished from the manatees by its fluked, dolphin-like tail, but also possesses a unique skull and teeth. The dugong is heavily dependent on seagrasses for subsistence and is thus restricted to the coastal habitats where they grow, with the largest dugong concentrations typically occurring in wide, shallow, protected areas such as bays, mangrove channels and the lee sides of large inshore islands. Its snout is sharply downturned, an adaptation for grazing and uprooting benthic seagrasses.
The dugong has been hunted for thousands of years for its meat and oil, although dugong hunting also has great cultural significance throughout its range. The dugong's current distribution is reduced and disjunct, and many populations are close to extinction. The IUCN lists the dugong as a species vulnerable to extinction, while the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species limits or bans the trade of derived products based on the population involved. Despite being legally protected in many countries throughout their range, the main causes of population decline remain anthropogenic and include hunting, habitat degradation, and fishing-related fatalities. With its long lifespan of 70 years or more, and slow rate of reproduction, the dugong is especially vulnerable to these types of exploitation. Dugongs are also threatened by storms, parasites, and their natural predators, sharks, killer whales, and crocodiles.
Etymology and taxonomy
The dugong was first classified by Müller in 1776 as Trichechus dugon, a member of the manatee genus previously defined by Linnaeus. It was later assigned as the type species of Dugong by Lacépède and further classified within its own family by Gray and subfamily by Simpson.
The word "dugong" derives from the Tagalog term dugong which was in turn adopted from the Malay duyung, both meaning "lady of the sea." Other common local names include "sea cow," "sea pig" and "sea camel."
Anatomy and morphology
The dugong's body is large and fusiform, with thick, smooth skin that is a pale cream color at birth but darkens dorsally and laterally to a brownish to dark gray with age. The body is sparsely covered in short hair, a common feature among sirenians which may allow for tactile interpretation of their environment. The dugong has paddle-like forelimbs which aid in movement and feeding, while its fluked tail provides locomotion through vertical movement. The teats are located just behind the forelimbs, similar to their location in elephants. Like the Amazonian Manatee, the dugong lacks nails on its forelimbs.
Unlike the manatees, the dugong's teeth do not continually grow back via horizontal tooth replacement. The dugong has two incisors (tusks) which grow posteriorly until puberty, after which they first erupt in males. The female's tusks continue to grow posteriorly, sometimes erupting later in life after reaching the base of the premaxilla. The full dental formula of dugongs is:
Like other sirenians, the dugong experiences pachyostosis, a condition in which the ribs and other long bones are unusually solid and contain little or no marrow. These heavy bones, which are among the densest in the animal kingdom, may act as a ballast to help keep sirenians suspended slightly below the water's surface.
Dugongs are generally smaller than manatees (with the exception of the Amazonian Manatee), reaching an average adult length of 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) and weight of 150 to 300 kilograms (330 to 660 lb). An adult's length rarely exceeds 3 metres (9.8 ft), and females tend to be larger than males. The largest known dugong was a female landed off the Saurashtra coast of west India, measuring 4.03 metres (13.2 ft) and weighing 1,018 kilograms (2,240 lb).
Remaining populations of dugong are greatly reduced, although they once covered all of the tropical South Pacific and Indian Oceans. Their historic range is believed to correspond to that of certain seagrasses. Groups of 10,000 or more are present on the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, at Shark Bay, and in Torres Strait south of New Guinea. Before 1970, it is thought, large populations were also present in coastal Mozambique and Kenya, but these have dwindled. Palau also has a small population. On January 22, 2003, an individual was found (weight 300 kg, length 2 m) off the coast of Tanzania.
Moreton Bay in Brisbane, Australia, is one of many homes to the dugong because it contains clean, clear water at the appropriate depth ranges; suitable food; and access to the sea for warmth. Although strong tidal currents affect the exact times and durations of each visit to the bay, the dugong return for protection from large sharks. Important to the future of the dugong, the area is a 200 km stretch of high-density human habitation and recreation, with easy access to study and learn how to best protect the remaining herds.
A small number of dugongs are also found in the Straits of Johor (which separates Johor in Malaysia and Singapore), in the Philippine provinces of Palawan, Romblon, Guimaras and Davao Oriental, in the Arabian Sea along Pakistan and in the Red Sea in Egypt provinces Marsa Alam at Marsa Abu Dabbab. The remaining dugongs in the Persian Gulf have reportedly been further endangered by repeated U.S.-Iraq conflicts which resulted in large oil spills into the gulf. The current population of Persian Gulf dugongs is around 7,500, but their status is currently not well known.
Ecology and life history
Dugongs are referred to as "sea cows" because their diet consists mainly of sea-grass. They are particular about their diets, with certain "fields" of sea-grass being regularly cropped. Unlike manatees, dugongs are exclusively benthic, or bottom feeders. Their primary feeding mechanism is uprooting sea-grass by digging furrows in the seafloor with their snouts. Reflecting this, the muscular snouts of dugongs are more dramatically tapered than those of manatees.
Dugongs in Moreton Bay, Australia, are omnivorous, feeding on invertebrates such as polychaetes when the supply of their choice grasses decreases. They will also go to any fresh water sources for drinking. Without these fresh water sources, many would not survive. The number of these fresh water sources is beginning to decline. The dugong population is predicted to enter a steep decline.
Dugongs bear one calf at a time after an approximately 13-month gestation. The calf nurses for two years and reaches sexual maturity between the ages of 8-18, longer than in most other mammals. Despite the longevity of the Dugong, which may live for fifty years or more, females give birth only a few times during their life and invest considerable parental care in their young.
Importance to humans
There is a 5,000-year old wall painting of a dugong, apparently drawn by neolithic peoples, found in Tambun Cave of Ipoh city in the state of Perak, Malaysia. This was discovered by Lt.R.L Rawlings in 1959 while on a routine patrol.
In Umm al-Quwain (UAE), a marine sanctuary, having a build-up of more than 40 skeletons of dugongs, was found by a French archeology mission in 2009. 5140 BP (islet of Akab).
Dugongs' or sea cows' hides have been thought by many to have been used as coverings in the building of the Old Testament's portable worship tent known as the Tabernacle, as referenced in the Holy Bible's book of Exodus, although the book of Leviticus (11:12) says that "everything in the waters that has not fins and scales is an abomination" for the Israelites.
Dugong in captivity
Worldwide, only six dugongs are held in captivity. Two are the featured attraction of Toba Aquarium in Toba, Mie, Japan; another, named Gracie, is at Underwater World, Singapore; a fourth is in Sea World Indonesia  which was saved after being caught by a local fisherman; and the last two (Pig, a 10-year-old male, and Wuru, a four-year-old female) formerly lived at Sea World on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, but in December, 2008, they were relocated to Sydney Aquarium.
Dugong are hunted for food throughout their wildlife range, usually for their meat and blubber. The seagrass beds which the dugong depend on for food are threatened by eutrophication caused by agricultural and industrial runoff, and dugong waste matter is a major food source for other aquatic creatures. Due to their shallow-water feeding habits, dugong are frequently injured or killed by collisions with motorized water vessels. Because of their large size, they have only a few predators. These include sharks, killer whales and saltwater crocodiles.
The U.S. and Japanese governments want to build a new military base on a coral reef close to Henoko, in Nago county, Okinawa. This plan has generated strong protests from Okinawans who are concerned that the local environment, home to the dugong, would be ruined. Greenpeace stepped up its campaign protesting the Okinawa base expansion in the summer of 2007, as authorities recommenced their airbase development plans.
Around the waters of Papua New Guinea, natives have been known to hunt both dugongs and dugong predators, such as sharks.
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- ^ have been thought by many: E. Rupell (Rupell and Leuckart, 1828, 1831) saw the Arabic word tucash (dugong) as equivalent to tahash (Heb. Bible). He designated them "Halicore tabernaculi" [Rothauscher's Dugong Page (english) "Mermaid" scroll down to bottom of the page, last sentence]---for his reputation as zoologist and taxonomist see also photographs: "Phanerophthalmus smaragdinus: Rupell and Leuckart, 1828" and--- Hexabranchus pulchellus: main page: Taxonomic notes: "This species is listed as Hexabranchus sanguineus (Rupell and Leuckart, 1831);ALSO (among those who thought dugongs' or sea cows' hides were used as coverings of the Tabernacle)---the editors of Easton's Bible Dictionary, "Badger", 1823-1894; Alfred Ely-Day, "Badger," International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1915; the editors of The Catholic Encyclopedia, "Tabernacle," 1915; the editors of various English translations of the Bible, NIV 1978, JPS Tanakh 1985, REB 1989, WEB 1997, The Hertz Pentateuch. However, the popular 20th c. academic opinion re: dugong as the meaning of "tahash" is noted as uncertain (the identity of tahash "remains obscure") in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed. "TAHASH" 2000; see Tahash: Other Biblical Translations for different opinions. see also Tahash: Dugong for discussion of the improbability of their use as coverings of the Tabernacle.
- ^ "Discover a New World at SeaWorld Indonesia - Dugong". Seaworldindonesia.com. 2005-03-16. http://www.seaworldindonesia.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=11&Itemid=11. Retrieved 2009-07-10. [dead link]
- ^ "Dugongs in Sydney Aquarium". Sydneyaquarium.com.au. http://www.sydneyaquarium.com.au/VisitorInfo/VIS011.asp?WhatisNewID=88. Retrieved 2009-07-10. [dead link]
- ^ "Take Action: Save the dugongs | Greenpeace International". Greenpeace.org. 2003-03-17. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/gmaps/take-action-save-the-dugongs. Retrieved 2009-07-10. [dead link]