Found in coastal and estuarine waters to depths of at least 110 m (Ref. 4281); on sand, mud and rough bottoms. Common amongst algae and eel-grass (Zostera) (Ref. 6733). Feeds on copepods, amphipods and decapod crustaceans (Ref. 85544). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).