This tree is of modest stature and exhibits a dense green crown. Common associates are another Black mangrove Avicennia germinans, White mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), Mora oleifera), Castaño (Montrichardia arborescens) and Mangle piñuelo (Pelliciera rhizophorae).
* World Wildlife Fund. Eds Mark McGinley, C.Michael Hogan, Cutler J.Cleveland. 2010. ”Gulf of Panama mangroves''. Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC
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