Muscles are contractile tissues that produce force and cause motion through a process involving electrical impulses and metabolization of glucose, producing ATP and lactic acid.
"The muscle consumes oxygen and fuel that can be transported via a circulation system; the muscle itself supports the chemical reaction that leads to mechanical work; electrochemical circuits can act as nerves, controlling actuation; some energy is stored locally in the muscle itself; and, like natural muscle, the materials studied…contract linearly." (Madden 2006:1559)
Learn more about this functional adaptation.
- Madden, J. D. 2006. Artificial muscle begins to breathe. Science. 311(5767): 1559-1560.
- Ebron VH; Yang Z; Seyer DJ; Kozlov ME; Oh J; Xie H; Razal J; Hall LJ; Ferraris JP; MacDiarmid AG; Baughman, RH. 2006. Fuel-powered artificial muscles. Science. 311(5767): 1580-1583.