Reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 73 m. In coastal waters but moves into deeper waters during winter. Often attached to gorgonians or sea grasses but may occur in floating Sargassum or may be free swimming. Those that live in Sargassum have bony protuberances and fleshy tabs. Has been reared in captivity.
- Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994; Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999; Moe, A.M. Jr., 1992; Schumann, B., 1969; Smith, C.L., 1997; Wicklund, R.I., S.J. Wilk and L. Ogren, 1969.
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