Benthopelagic; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 600 m. Found over a wide range of habitats. Forms schools during the day.
- Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C., 1953; Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990; Kjesbu, O.S., H. Kryvi, S. Sundby and P. Solemdal, 1992.
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