Fry in fresh water may not feed or may feed on insect nymphs. Young in the sea, feed on copepods and larvacean (tunicate larvae), but as the fish grows amphipods, euphausiids and fishes are taken. Other food includes ostracods, decapod larvae, cirriped larvae, dipterous insects.
Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Chyung, M.-K., 1977; Morrow, J.E., 1980; Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991; Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman, 1973.