Demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 250 m. Spends 18 months at sea after which spawning migration to the natal river or stream occurs; but because the species is less certain of its homing and there is a certain degree of wandering, streams as much as 640 km from natal streams may be used. Upon emerging from the gravel, fry immediately move downstream and remain inshore for a few months before going out to sea.
- Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Chyung, M.-K., 1977; Morrow, J.E., 1980; Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991; Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman, 1973.
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