Demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range to 30 m. Commonly found in bays and coastal waters. May enter rivers to spawn in spring. Some populations are landlocked.
- Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; Heemstra, P.C., 1995; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman, 1973.
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