Demersal; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 53 m. In shallow coastal waters, over hard or sand bottoms, often in schools but may be in small groups or in pairs. Juveniles can occur in estuaries and off sandy beaches.
- Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Cervigón, F., 1993; Coupal, L., E. B?rd, C. Peguero and I.S. Durante, 1992; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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