Benthopelagic; brackish; marine. Depth range; 0-1200 m. Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m . In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, and when the temperature rises, retreats to depths of 180-550 m.
- Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Compagno, L. J. V., 1984; Compagno, L. J. V., D. A. Ebert and M. J. Smale, 1989.
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