Demersal; marine; depth range 0-191 m. Commonly found inshore to the outer continental shelf. Generally on or near the bottom, also occurs in midwater or at the surface. Maintains neutral buoyancy while swimming by gulping air and storing it in its stomach. Found singly or in schools.
- Bigelow, H. B., and Schroeder.W.C.,1953; Last, P.R. and Stewens, J.D., 1994; Compagno, L.J.V. and Niem, V. H., 1998; Compagno, L.J.V., Ebert, D. A. and Smale, M. J., 1989; Compagno, L.J.V., 1984.
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