Coastal waters on both sides of the Atlantic; Maine to Florida and Brazil; Mediterranean, tropical West Africa, Canaries, and Cape Verdes; South Africa.
- Bigelow, H. B., and Schroeder.W.C.,1953; Last, P.R. and Stewens, J.D., 1994; Compagno, L.J.V. and Niem, V. H., 1998; Compagno, L.J.V., Ebert, D. A. and Smale, M. J., 1989; Compagno, L.J.V., 1984.
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