All skates are oviparous (8) (egg-laying), with large female thornbacks laying up to 140 to 160 egg capsules per year (6). The species moves into shallower, inshore waters in spring when ready to spawn, laying eggs between March and September, which take a further four to six months to hatch (6). Young feed on small crustaceans and other bottom-dwelling creatures, predating more on fish and larger crustaceans such as crabs as they develop (5) (6). Maturity is reached at around eight years of age (5), and the maximum lifespan is at least 15 years (6).
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