The rosalia longicorn is largely threatened by habitat loss and destruction due to changes in methods of forest maintenance and felled wood processing. Trees are being cut down and harvested for timber and firewood before they reach a suitable age to be able to support developing larvae, and dead wood is being rapidly removed to facilitate 'reforestation' (5) (6). In the past, felled trunks were often stored along forest roads and remained there for long periods of time, attracting groups of breeding rosalia longicorns. Now, felled trunks are usually cut and immediately moved. Forests rich in the preferred habitat of beech and maple have also been transformed into coniferous forests during recent decades. Fertilisers have helped accelerate forest growth and the development of closed canopies, which block out sunlight and prevent the essential drying of dead wood required for larvae development. Indeed, damp, humid conditions promote rotting and fungal growth in dead wood, conditions in which the metamorphosis of larvae into the adult beetle form cannot occur (5). The rosalia longicorn also suffers from collection from the wild for commercial trade, with its distinctive pattern and bright colour making it attractive to collectors (7).
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