The larvae occur amongst roots or aquatic plants. They are active mainly at night, and like other damselfly larvae are active predators. Larval development takes around two years, and they overwinter twice in the mud at the bottom of the river or pond (3). Larvae often travel for up to 100m out of water before the adult emergence occurs, typically in a shrub or tree (3). The flight period of adults is between May and the end of September (2). They take 7-10 days to mature following emergence, after which time they fly to breeding sites. Males hold territories around suitable egg-laying sites amongst vegetation that protrudes from the water, or they perch on vegetation at the riverside (4). Whilst the territory-holding males actively court females with a fluttering display flight (3), perching males try to mate with any female that passes by (4). Occasionally, males will fight over a territory, engaging in contest of a series of stereotypical flights for hours (3). After mating, females oviposit alone, often placing the eggs into the tissues of submerged vegetation (4). The eggs take around 14 days to hatch (3).
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