In the UK, this orchid once had a widespread but localised distribution in northern England and was known from Cumbria, Durham, Yorkshire and areas of the southern Pennines in the Peak District of Derbyshire (1). Although this species was never common (4), it suffered a severe decline in the 19th century due to over-collection for horticulture; at one point there was just a single flowering plant in existence (7). At present just one native population is currently known from a carefully guarded site (1). The species is at the western extreme of its range in the UK (5). Elsewhere it is known from France across central and northern Europe to Russia, northeast China, Korea and northern Japan (14).