Pumas are solitary cats, with the exception of one to six day associations during mating periods and contact between females and their young (8). Males occupy large territories that overlap those of several females; the boundaries of the territory are marked by scrapes left in prominent positions (3). Females advertise their receptivity to mating with loud scream-like calls (5). Mating occurs year-round, but is concentrated from December to March in northern latitudes (8). The female gives birth to her litter of between one and six kittens within a den; the kittens are initially blind and helpless, remaining in the den whilst their mother forages for food (3) (8). At around two months of age they are able to accompany their mother on hunting forays and remain with her until around 1.5 to 2 years old (9). Pumas are primarily nocturnal and crepuscular, being most active at dawn and dusk, and rarely emerging in the day (3). These agile yet powerful cats hunt by stalking and ambushing their prey (6). Pumas predominantly feed on ungulates, but are known to occasionally take smaller prey (10). In the northern areas of their range, they feed primarily on large ungulates, including elk and occasionally domestic cattle, whereas in tropical areas their diet seems to consist of more medium-sized prey (10).
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