The Sumatran rhinoceros is the smallest and most endangered of the five living rhinoceros species (2). It is possibly the world's most endangered large mammal; only one viable population remains in northern Sumatra (7). The squat, thick-statured body is a reddish-brown colour and may be covered with long hair (6), so much so that this species is also known as the 'hairy rhinoceros' (8). It is the only Asian rhinoceros to have two horns, although the posterior horn is much reduced and often absent in females (2). There are two deep skin folds that encircle the body, behind the front legs and in front of the hind legs (3).
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