Stags and hinds tend to stay in separate groups for most of the year (1); stags group into unrelated 'bachelor herds', and hinds live in groups consisting of a dominant female and her daughters (1). They are active throughout the 24-hour period, but tend to be more so in the evening and at night, possibly due to human activity (4). The diet consists of shrub and tree browse (4), grasses, sedges and rushes (1), as well as heather (4). Mating occurs between late September and November (1), during this time, known as 'the rut', mature stags invest much time and effort into competing with other males for access to females at traditional rutting areas (1). Roaring contests and parallel walking allow males to 'size each other up' without violence; evenly matched stags may then escalate the contest and lock antlers, push each other and try to throw their opponent off-balance by twisting, sometimes leading to serious injuries and even death (5). After the rutting period, males and females go their separate ways. Births, usually of a single young (3), occur from late May and peak towards the beginning of June (4). Male offspring disperse when they reach one or two years of age, but female calves usually stay with their mother (4).