The Galapagos penguin is the most northerly of all penguins, occurring on the Galapagos Islands, on the equator (3). It is the third smallest penguin in the world (4) and is the smallest member of the Spheniscidae
family (5). This diminutive penguin has a black head and upperparts, with a narrow white line extending from the throat around the head to the corner of the eye (6). The underparts are white with two black bands extending across the breast (2). The upper part of the bill and the tip of the lower part of the bill are black, the rest of the bill and a bare patch around the eye and bill are pinkish yellow (6). Although the sexes are generally similar in appearance, males are larger than females (5). Juveniles have a totally dark head, and lack the dark breast bands seen in adults (2). This species has more bare skin on the face than other penguins; this is an adaptation to the hot temperatures experienced on the Galapagos (4).