The saker falcon is protected across much of its range, particularly in Eastern Europe, where controls of illegal trade were implemented in various countries in the 1990s (6). There have been concerted conservation efforts in Europe, and intensive patrolling and management has even produced a steadily rising population in Hungary (5) (6). The species is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and in 2002 CITES imposed a trade ban on the United Arab Emirates (3). However, more needs to be done to monitor illegal trade, which evidently continues, and to enforce regulations against it. Certain countries, including the United Arab Emirates, have reduced the demand for wild-caught birds by captive breeding 'farmed' saker falcons to trade to falconers instead (6). A programme to erect artificial nest platforms in the Mongolian steppe is proving a significant conservation measure for the breeding saker falcon population (7). Constructing artificial nests prevents the falcon constructing nests on electricity pylons, during which many are electrocuted (8). In addition, a number of research programmes have also been established to learn more about the distribution, population, and ecology of this species, in addition to the threats facing it, which should help to inform appropriate conservation efforts and management strategies in the future (6).
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