Although no major threats currently face the Snares crested penguin, the species is considered vulnerable due to its breeding population being confined to one small island group (3). The Snares Islands are completely free of introduced predators and any accidental introduction could be disastrous (3) (4). Additionally, waters surrounding these islands are the target of a large squid fishery, which may be reducing the penguin's available prey. Other related species within the region, notably the erect-crested penguin (E. sclateri
) and rockhopper penguin (E. chrysocome
), are known to be undergoing major declines, possibly due to oceanic warming and the resultant redistribution of prey species (3).