The dipper has evolved amazing methods of hunting: it swims underwater using its wings, can walk along the bottom with the wings held out to prevent it bobbing to the surface, and can swim on the surface, making dives into the water (5) (2). They feed on a wide range of aquatic invertebrates and fish (6). Dippers hunt by sight, and have a third white eye-lid known as a nictitating membrane, which protects the eye when they are submerged (5). Dippers breed early in the year, and will often have laid eggs before the end of February (6). The domed nest is constructed from straw and moss, and is typically built in a crevice below a bridge, behind a waterfall or in a stone wall (2). Four or five eggs are laid and incubated for around 16 days. The young will have fledged after 20-24 days, and the maximum lifespan of this bird is around 8 years (3).
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