This species was identified from fossils in the 1970s and was believed to have become extinct 2000 years ago, incredibly however, surviving populations were discovered in 1980 (3). Since then this toad has decreased markedly in abundance and range. The decline in the Mallorcan midwife toad was the result of the introduction to the island of competitors and predators such as the viperine snake (Natrix maura
), which predates on both adult toads and tadpoles, and the green frog (Rana perezi
) (4) that competes for food (2). Increased demands for water due to the large number of tourists visiting the island places pressure on mountain water resources, and a number of schemes have proposed to dam the rivers in which this toad lives. A further threat arises from the small size of the remaining population, which places the species at risk of extinction from chance catastrophic events (2).