Spotted Seals breed in isolated pairs rather than large groups. They congregate in breeding areas, but each pair keeps its distance. This type of breeding system, in which the male breeds with one female and stays with her and the pup until the pup is weaned, is rare among seals. Eight such breeding areas are known along the southern edge of the pack ice. Young seals suffer a high mortality rate. About 45 percent die in the first year of life, many due to predation by sharks, killer whales, walruses, polar bears, arctic foxes, eagles, ravens, and gulls.
Links:Mammal Species of the World
Original description: Pallas, P.S., 1811. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, 1:113.