The white-handed gibbon was considered to make life-long pair bonds, but recent studies show some serial monogamy with occasional partner changes, and even non-monogamous groupings (10). Generally, however, groups consist of a mated pair and their offspring. An elaborate duet sung between males and females is thought to maintain pair bonds as well as to mark and defend the pair's territory. These gibbons breed year round, usually producing one young every two to three years (2) (8). The gestation period lasts seven to eight months and young are weaned at 18 months (10). Juveniles reach adult size at six years but remain with their natal group until they reach sexual maturity at around nine years old (8) (10). Parental care is predominantly given by the mother but the father and elder siblings also help raise young (8). Lifespan in the wild lasts 25 to 30 years (10). These gibbons are active during the day, which is mostly spent foraging for food and feeding (10). Primarily frugivorous, the white-handed gibbon will also eat immature leaves, flowers, stems, shoots, buds, insects, eggs and the occasional bird (2) (9).
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