Construction pattern forms sturdy tubes: organ-pipe wasp
The nests of organ-pipe wasps are long sturdy tubes built from strands of mud in a herringbone pattern.
"The inch-long female begins at the top with a ball of wet mud and applies it to the vertical surface, stretching it out into ropes braided into a herringbone pattern, creating a ^ built in two steps: first the /, working from bottom to top, then the \, again beginning at the bottom and joining its mirror image at the top." (Gould and Gould 2007:14)
Learn more about this functional adaptation.
- Gould, James L; Gould, Carol Grant. 2007. Animal architects: building and the evolution of intelligence. New York: Basic Books. 324 p.