This is an update of Chapter 2 of Ashburner, Golic and Hawley, 2005. With permission of Cold Spring Harbor Press.
Drosophila DATABASES and THE LITERATURE
Several developments in the last decade or so have conspired to make databases of scientific information essential for biological research. These include the explosive growth of DNA sequencing, the increasing availability of very large experimental data sets as well as the exponential growth of the conventional scientific literature. Databases not only allow convenient access to these resources, but also, if they are well designed, allow links between classes of data that would be very difficult to establish manually.
There are many electronic databases that are essential for Drosophila researchers. These include the large internationally collaborative databases of nucleic acid sequences and proteins (i.e. the DDBJ/EMBL-Bank/Genbank, Swiss-Prot/UniProt and PSD databases), the comprehensive community database for Drosophila, FlyBase, and a number of smaller resources that will be referenced below.
FlyBase is the community database for Drosophila researchers. It is one of several Model Organism Databases that provide information for a variety of experimental organisms. FlyBase was established in 1992, and was primarily motivated by the need to provide continuity to the long established tradition in this field of publishing catalogs of mutations and chromosome aberrations. On its inception in 1992 FlyBase inherited the content of Lindsley and Zimm’s then recent revision of the Redbook and incorporated this, along with the contents of the published bibliographies of Drosophila research into a relational database structure.
FlyBase is a curated database. Much of the information contained within FlyBase is obtained from the scientific literature, which is read and abstracted by FlyBase curators. Information is also derived from other databases (e.g., the nucleic acid and protein sequence databases) and from large scale datasets provided by the community, including the Drosophila genome projects. No database is perfect and FlyBase suffers from errors of commission and omission. For this reason FlyBase encourages community feedback, e.g., by email to email@example.com.
Unlike some other model organism databases FlyBase was fortunate enough to establish a very intimate association with groups sequencing the genome of Drosophila. From 1996, the bioinformatics parts of both the Berkeley and European Drosophila Genome Projects were integral members of the FlyBase consortium.
1.1.2 Other Drosophila databases.
In addition to FlyBase there are a number of other, more specialist, databases that are of interest to Drosophila researchers. The more important of these are listed on the "Resources" pages of FlyBase.
The first known publication on drosophilidsdates from 1684. Since then approximately 80,000 substantive publications and about 30,000 abstracts have been published on these organisms. This is a substantial literature.
The existence of comprehensive databases for Drosophila should not obscure the fact that the great majority of researches with this organism are published conventionally in the scientific literature. Searching for information from databases is most profitable when combined with reading the primary written sources. Abstracts of the literature from about 1963 are often available from MEDLINE and PUBMED, and these are freely available resources (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/). An increasing proportion of the current, and some of the older, literature is now available in electronic form. FlyBase provides a convenient access to the Drosophila literature through its references query page.
2.1 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNTS
The only comprehensive history of the early days of Drosophila research is that by Kohler (1994). A biography of T.H. Morgan, the founder of the field, was written by Allen (1978). In addition to these there are a number of other biographical or historical books of interest to drosophilists, as well as many journal papers, especially in the “Perspectives” section of the journal Genetics.
- Carlson, E.A. (ed.) 1968. Herman Joseph Muller. A Memorial Tribute. The Review, Indiana Univ. 11: 1-48.
- Land, B. 1973. Evolution of a scientist: the two worlds of Theodosius Dobzhansky,pp. 262. Crowell, New York.
- Allen, G.E. 1978. Thomas Hunt Morgan. The Man and his Science, pp. 447. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
- Carlson, E.A. 1981. Genes, Radiation, and Society. The Life and Work of H.J. Muller, pp. 457. Cornell University Press, Ithica and London.
- Vorontsov, N.N. 1983. Nikolai Vladimirovich Timofeev-Resovskii. Ocherki, vospominaniia, materially. pp. 394. Nauka, Moskva. [In Russian.]
- Provine, W.R. 1986. Sewall Wright and Evolutionary Biology, pp. 545. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
- Shine, I. and S. Wrobel. 1976. Thomas Hunt Morgan, Pioneer of Genetics, pp. 160. The University Press of Kentucky. Lexington.
- Granin, D. (trans. A.W. Bouis). 1990. The Bison. A novel about the scientist who defied Stalin, pp. 262. Doubleday, New York. [The life of N.V. Timofeeff-Ressovsky]. [First published in Russian as Zubr: povest’ in Novyi mir in 1987; also published as a novel in Russian (1988; Moskva, Sovetskii Pisatel’ and in German as Der Genetiker : das Leben des Nikolai Timofejew-Ressowski (1988; Pahl-Rugenstein, Koln.)]
- Kohler, R.E. 1991. Drosophila and evolutionary genetics. Hist. Sci. 29: 335-375.
- Paul, D.B. and C.B. Krimbas. 1992. Nikolai V. Timofeeff-Ressovsky. Scient. Am. February 1992: 86--92 .
- Adams, M.B. (ed.) 1994. The evolution of Theodosius Dobzhansky: Essays on his life and thought in Russia and America, pp. 249. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
- Kohler, R.E. 1994. Lords of the fly: Drosophila genetics and the experimental life, pp. 321. Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL.
Jacob, F. 1997. La souris, la mouche et l'homme. Odile Jacob, Paris [translated by G. Weiss, 1998. Of flies, mice and men. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, MA.]
- Gehring, W.J. 1998. Master control genes in development and evolution: The homeobox story, pp. 236. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
- Weiner, J. 1999. Time, love and memory: a great biologist and his quest for the origins of behavior, pp. 290. A.A. Knopf, New York. [Largely devoted to the work of Seymour Benzer.]
- Timofeeff-Ressovsky, N.V. 2000. Vospominaniia : istorii, rasskazannye im samim, s pis'mami, fotografiiami i dokumentami. [The Stories told by Himself with Letters, Photos and Documents.] pp. 876. Soglasie, Moskva. [In Russian.]
- Brookes, M. 2001. Fly: an experimental life, pp. 215. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. [German translation 2002 published by Rowohlt, Reinbek.]
- Babkov, V.V. and E.S. Sakanian. 2002. Nikolai Vladimirovich Timofeev-Resovskii. 1900-1981. pp. 672. Pamiatniki istoricheskoi mysli, Moskva. [In Russian.]
- Lipshitz, H.D. 2004. Genes, Development and Cancer. The Life and Work of Edward B. Lewis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
- Novitski, E. 2005. Sturtevant & Dobzhansky. Two Scientists at Odds, With a Student's Recollections. pp. 241. Privately published by the Xlibris Corporation (www.Xlibris.com).
The Drosophila literature is vast, over 80,000 papers have been published to date and the rate of increase is now over 200 papers a month.
- Indexed bibliographies to the Drosophila literature were published for the years until 1981 and are reasonably complete, especially for the genetical literature, although less so for the taxonomic literature and for that concerned with drosophilids other than Drosophila itself.
- To 1924 Morgan, T.H., C.B. Bridges, and A.H. Sturtevant. 1925. The genetics of Drosophila. Bibliographica Genetica II: 1–262. (~500 References, not indexed.)
- 1925–39 Muller, H.J. 1939. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila. Imperial Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. (2965 References indexed in Part II.)
- 1939–50 Herskowitz, I.H. 1953. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila. Part II. Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Farnham Royal, England. (2841 References, indexed; also includes the index of Part I.)
- 1951–56 Herskowitz, I.H. 1958. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila. Part III. Indiana University Publications, Bloomington, Indiana. (3100 References.)
- 1957–62 Herskowitz, I.H. 1963. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila. Part IV. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. (3305 References.)
- 1963–67 Herskowitz, I.H. 1969. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila. Part V. The Macmillan Co., New York. (3775 References.)
- 1968–72 Herskowitz, I.H. 1974. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila. Part VI. Collier-Macmillan Co., New York. (4821 References.)
- 1973–78 Herskowitz, I.H. 1974–80. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila Part VII. Drosophila Information Service 1974, 51: 159–193; 1977, 52: 186–226; 1978, 53: 219–244; 1980, 55: 218–262; 1980, 56: 198–258. The indices are in the last section (DIS 56). (6684 References.)
- 1978–81 Herskowitz, I.H. 1982–83. Bibliography on the genetics of Drosophila. Part VIII. Drosophila Information Service 1982, 58: 227–270; 1983, 59: 162–256. The indices are in the second section (DIS 59). (4174 References.)
- FlyBase. The bibliography of Drosophila 1982-1993. Drosophila Information Service 1994, 74: 1-675. (24245 References).
- FlyBase. The bibliography of Drosophila 1982-1994 (Supplement). Drosophila Information Service 1997, 79: 141-208. (2426 References).
- FlyBase. The bibliography of Drosophila 1994-1996. Drosophila Information Service 1997, 79: 211-399. (6402 References).
3 Drosophila INFORMATION SERVICE
Drosophila Information Service (DIS) is an informal publication that was founded by Calvin Bridges in 1934, being modeled on the Maize Cooperative Newsletter. It includes research notes, stock lists, lists of new mutations, technical notes, a directory of drosophilists, and, often, bibliographies. It usually appears every year and is currently available for a modest charge from the editor, Dr. J.N. Thompson Jr (Department of Zoology, 730 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA). E. Novitski, who was editor for many years, reissued all but the ephemera of DIS 1–14 and DIS 15–24 in single volumes. Back issues of DIS may be available from the editor.
DIS is in the process of making their issues available electronically from their WWW site at http://www.ou.edu/journals/dis/.
4 Drosophila BULLETIN BOARD
The electronic bulletin board for Drosophila researchers is a useful way of contacting the community to announce meetings, request materials or ask for information. The address for postings is firstname.lastname@example.org. Note that postings are moderated so as to eliminate spam or irrelevant material. The bulletin board is available from http://www.bio.net/hypermail/dros/. This site has an archive of postings back to 1993.
2/5 Drosophila RESEARCHERS
A directory of Drosophila researchers is available from FlyBase. Individual researchers must add – and maintain – their own contact details.
2/6 INTRODUCTIONS TO Drosophila
There have been several introductions to Drosophila, usually aimed at undergraduate teaching. The first of these was published as early as 1918 (Genetics Laboratory Manual by E.B. Babcock and J.L. Collins, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 56) and was presumably based on experience at Berkeley.
- Haskell, G. 1961. Practical heredity with Drosophila, pp. 124. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.
- Strickberger, M.W. 1962. Experiments in genetics with Drosophila, pp. 143. Wiley & Sons, New York.
- Shorrocks, B. 1972. Drosophila, pp. 144. Ginn & Co., London.
- Demerec, M. and B.P. Kaufman, with revisions by A.C. Spradling. 1996. Drosophila: Introduction to the genetics and cytology of Drosophila melanogaster, pp. 46. 10th edition. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ., Washington, D.C. [available for download from
- Graf, U., N. van Schaik and F.E. Würgler. 1983. Drosophila-Genetik, pp. 291. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York.
- Graf, U., N. van Schaik and F.E. Würgler. 1992. Drosophila genetics: a practical course. pp. 239. Springer Verlag, Berlin & New York. [English translation of Graf et al. 1983.]
- Ramos Morales, P. 1993. Manual de laboratorio de genetica para Drosophila melanogaster. pp. 131. McGraw-Hill, Mexico City.
Tyler, M.S. and J.W. Schnetzer. 1996. Fly cycle2: The Lives of a Fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Video. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
- Greenspan, R.J. 2004. Fly Pushing. The Theory and Practice of Drosophila Genetics, 2nd edition. pp.191. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
- Tyler, M.S. and R.N. Kozlowski. 2003. Fly Life Cycle: The Lives of a Fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Video. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
2/7 GENERAL MONOGRAPHS
In addition to the first and current editions of this work, there are three publications in English reviewing the biology or genetics (or both) of Drosophila in broad terms:
- Morgan, T.H., C.B. Bridges, and A.H. Sturtevant. 1925. (see above). This is a very thorough review of all of the early genetics and includes much biological information, in addition to the genetics.
- Demerec, M. (ed.) 1950. The biology of Drosophila, pp. 632. John Wiley, New York. Reprinted in 1965 by Hafner Publishing Co., New York and in 1994 by the Cold Spring Harbor Press. This remains an essential work of reference for any serious fly lab.
- Ashburner, M., E. Novitski, T.R.F. Wright, H.L. Carson, and J.N. Thompson. (eds.) 1976–1986. The genetics and biology of Drosophila, vols. 1a–c, 2a–d, 3a–e. Academic Press, London. An attempt at a reasonably comprehensive review of the biology of Drosophila.
The Novosibirsk group has written three monographs in Russian:
- Khvostova, V.V., L.I. Korochkin, and M.D. Golubovsky. (eds.) 1977. Problemi genetiki Issledovania na Drosophila, pp. 278. Nauka, Moscow.
- Khvostova, V.V., M.D. Golubovsky, and L.I. Korochkin. (eds.) 1978. Drosophila v experimentalnoy genetika, pp. 268. Nauka, Moscow.
- Golubovsky, M.D. and L.I. Korochkin. (eds.) 1981. Biochimicheskaya genetik Drosophila, pp. 246. Nauka, Moscow.
A comprehensive monograph, Drosophila: A Laboratory Handbook was first published in 1989. The current edition is:
- Ashburner, M., Golic, K. and Hawley, R.S. 2005. Drosophila: A Laboratory Handbook. 2nd edition. pp.1409. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York.
8 METHODS BOOKS
Several “methods” books have been published in the last 15 years or so and are useful sources for both genetic, molecular, developmental and other techniques .
- Ashburner, M. 1989. Drosophila: A Laboratory Manual, pp. 434. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
- Roberts, D. (ed.) 1986. Drosophila: A practical approach. pp. 310. IRL Press, Oxford.
- Goldstein, L.S.B. and E.A. Fryberg (eds.) 1994. Drosophila melanogaster: Practical Uses in Cell Biology and Molecular Biology. Methods Cell Biol. 44: 1-755.
- Roberts, D. (ed.) 1998. Drosophila: A practical approach, pp. 389. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Sullivan, W., M. Ashburner and R. Scott Hawley. (eds.) 2000. Drosophila Protocols, pp. 697. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
- Dahamm, C. 2008. Drosophila. (Methods in Molecular Biology). pp. 400. Humana Press., Totowa, NJ.
There are a number of monographs and conference proceedings dealing with one or more aspects of Drosophila biology.
- Sturtevant, A.H. 1961. Genetics and Evolution. Selected papers of A.H. Sturtevant, pp.334. Selected by E.B. Lewis. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.
- Muller, H.J. 1962. Studies in genetics; the selected papers of H.J. Muller, pp. 618. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IA.
- Stern, C. 1968. Genetic Mosaics and Other Essays, pp.185. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA Proceedings of the Sixth European Drosophila Research Conference. 1980. pp. 231. Yugoslav Union Biological Sciences, Beograd. (Also as Acta Biol. Yugoslavica Series F, 12: 1–231.)
- Lakovaara, S. (ed.) 1982. Advances in genetics, development and evolution of Drosophila, pp. 470. Proceedings of the 7th European Drosophila Research Conference. Plenum Press, New York.
9.2 Developmental and Cell Biology
- Strasburger, E.H. 1935. Drosophila melanogaster Meig. Eine Einführung in den Bau und die Entwicklung, pp. 60. Julius Springer, Berlin.
- Poulson, D.F. 1937. The embryonic development of Drosophila, pp. 51. Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles 498. Hermann et Cie., Paris.
- King, R.C. 1970. Ovarian development in Drosophila melanogaster, pp. 227. Academic Press, New York.
- Ursprung, H. and R. Nöthiger (eds.) 1972. The biology of imaginal disks. Results and problems in cell differentiation, vol.5, pp. 172. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York.
- Dickerson, W.J. and D.T. Sullivan. 1975. Gene-enzyme systems in Drosophila. Results and problems in cell differentiation, vol.6, pp. 163. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York.
- Siddiqi, O., P. Babu, L.M. Hall, and J.C.Hall. (eds.) 1980. Development and neurobiology of Drosophila. Proceedings of Conference on Development and Behavior of Drosophila, pp. 496. Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Bombay, 1979. Plenum Press, New York.
- Ransom, R. (ed.) 1982. A handbook of Drosophila development, pp. 289. Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
- Lawrence, P.A. 1992. The making of a fly: the genetics of animal design, pp. 228. Blackwell’s Scientific, Oxford & Boston.
- Bate, M. and A. Martinez-Arias. (eds.) 1993. The Development of Drosophila melanogaster, 2 vols. pp. 1558. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
- Hartenstein, V. 1993. Atlas of Drosophila development, pp. 57. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
- Lasko, P.F. 1994. Molecular genetics of Drosophila oogenesis, pp. 125. R.G. Landes Co., Austin, TX.
- Yamamoto, D. 1996. Molecular dynamics in the developing Drosophila eye. pp.172. R.G. Landes Co., Austin TX.
- Campos-Ortega, J.A. and V. Hartenstein. 1997. The embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster, pp. 405. 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Held, L.I. 2002. Imaginal discs: the genetic and cellular logic of pattern formation. pp.460. Cambridge University Press, New York & Cambridge.
- Siddiqi, O., P. Babu, L.M. Hall, and J.C.Hall (eds.) 1980. Development and neurobiology of Drosophila. Proceedings of Conference on Development and Behavior of Drosophila, pp. 496. Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Bombay, 1979. Plenum Press, New York.
- Hall, J.C., R.J. Greenspan, and W.A. Harris. 1982. Genetic neurobiology, pp. 284. Massachusetts MIT Press, Cambridge.
- Hall, J.C. 1982. Genetics of the nervous system of Drosophila. Quart. Rev. Biophysics 15: 223–379.
- Heisenberg, M. and R. Wolf. 1984. Vision in Drosophila, pp. 250. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Budnik. V. and L.S. Gramates. 1999. Neuromuscular Junctions in Drosophila. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 43: 1-289.
- Moses, K. 2002. (ed.) Drosophila Eye Development. Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation 37. pp. 282. Springer, New York.
- Hall, J.C. 2003. Genetics and molecular biology of rhythms in Drosophila and other Insects. pp. 286. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
- Muder, A. and T.A. Newman (eds) 2008. Drosophila. A toolbox for the study of neurodegenerative disease. Society of Experimental Biology, 60th Symposium. pp. 172. Taylor & Francis, London.
9.4 Tissue Culture
- Echalier, G. 1997. Drosophila cells in culture, pp. 702. Academic Press, San Diego.
- Lints, F.A. 1977. Aging in Drosophila, pp. 179. Irvington Press, New York.
- Gartner, L.P. 1986. Aging in Drosophila: A selected annotated bibliography, pp. 247. Jen House Publishing Co., Baltimore.
- Lints, F.A. and M.H. Soliman. (eds.) 1988. Drosophila as a model organism for ageing studies, pp. 307. Blackie & Son Ltd., Glasgow.
- Maroni, G. 1993. An atlas of Drosophila genes: sequences and molecular features. pp. 415. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford.
- Arkhipova, I.R., N.V. Liubomirskaia and Y.V., Ilyin. 1995. Drosophila retrotransposons. pp. 234. R.G. Landes Co., Austin, TX.
- Hartl, D.L. and E.R. Lozovskaya. 1995. The Drosophila genome map: A practical guide. pp. 240. R.G. Landes Co., Austin TX.
- Ashburner, M. 2006. Won for All. How the Drosophila Genome was Sequenced. pp.107. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York.
- Ananiev, E.V. and V.E. Barsky. 1985. Electron microscopic map of the polytene chromosomes of the salivary glands of Drosophila (D. melanogaster), pp. 85. Nauka, Moscow. [In Russian.]
- Sorsa, V. 1988. Polytene chromosomes in genetic research, pp. 289. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
- Sorsa, V. 1988. Chromosome maps of Drosophila, 2 volumes, pp. 149 and 200. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [available online at http://www.helsinki.fi/~saura/EM/index.html]
- Khvostova, V.V. 1992. Effect polozhenyiya gena v issledovaniyakh V. V. Khvostovoy [Position effect variegation researches of V. V. Khvostova]. pp. 98. Novosibirsk. [In Russian.]
- Krimbas, C.B. and J.R. Powell. 1992. Drosophila inversion polymorphism, pp. 560. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
- Henderson, D.S. 2004. Drosophila cytogenetics protocols. pp.400. Human Press, Totowa, NJ.
9.8 Taxonomy, Evolution, Population Genetics and Ecology
- Patterson, J.T. and W.S. Stone. 1952. Evolution in the genus Drosophila, pp. 610. The Macmillan Co., New York.
- Okada, T. 1968. Systematic study of the early stages of Drosophilidae, pp. 168. Bunka Zugeisha Co., Tokyo.
- Parsons, P.A. 1973. Behavioural and ecological genetics: A study in Drosophila, pp. 223. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
- Lewontin, R.C., J.A. Moore, W.B. Provine and B. Wallace. (eds.) 1981. Dobzhansky’s Genetics of Natural Populations, I-XLIII. pp. 942. Columbia University Press, NY.
- Gibson, J.B. and J.G. Oakeshott. (eds.) 1981. Genetic studies of Drosophila populations, pp. 267. Proceedings of the Kioloa Conference. Australian National University Press, Canberra.
- Barker, J.S.F. and W.T. Starmer. (eds.) 1982. Ecological genetics and evolution. The Cactus-Yeast-Drosophila model system, pp. 362. Academic Press, Sydney.
- Suzuki, K. (ed.). 1988. Selected papers by Dr Toyohi Okada (1936-1988). pp. 412. Toyama-shi, Japan.
- Barker, J.S.F., W.S. Starmer and R.J. MacIntyre (eds.) 1990. Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics of Drosophila, pp. 524. Plenum Press, NY.
- Krimbas, C.B. 1993. Drosophila subobscura. Biology, genetics and inversion Polymorphism, pp. 395. Verlag Dr. Kovac, Hamburg.
- Tobari, Y.N. (ed.) 1993. Drosophila ananassae. Genetical and biological aspects, pp. 289. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo.
- Lee, T.J. 1993. [Evolution in Drosophila], pp. 330. Chung-ang University Press. [In Korean.]
- Powell, J.R. 1997. Progress and Prospects in Evolutionary Biology: The Drosophila Model, pp. 562. Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford.
- Markow, T.A. and P.M. O'Grady. 2006. Drosophila. A guide to species identification and use. pp. 259. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
2/10 PUBLISHED CATALOGS OF MUTATIONS
The mutations, and other genetic variants, of D. melanogaster were first systematically cataloged by Morgan, Bridges, and Sturtevant (1925) (see 2/1). In 1936, Bridges devoted all of DIS 9 to a draft list of mutations that became Bridges and Brehme (1942), the standard work of reference until the mid-1960s. Then Lindsley and Grell published a “revision” of Bridges and Brehme. In fact, it is far more than a simple revision of the earlier work and covers the literature until 1965. The final book in this series is Lindsley and Zimm (1992), which differed from all previous books in centering attention on genes, rather than mutations. Lindsley and Zimm, universally know as “The Red Book” covers the literature until the end of 1989.
- Bridges, C.B. and K.S. Brehme. 1942. The mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, pp. 252. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 552.
- Braver, N.B. 1956. The mutants of Drosophila melanogasterclassified according to body parts affected , pp. 36. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 552A.
- Lindsley, D.L. and E.H. Grell. 1968. Genetic variations of Drosophila melanogaster, pp. 472. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 627.
- Lindsley, D.L. and G.G. Zimm, G.G. 1992. The Genome of Drosophila Melanogaster, pp. 1133. Academic Press, San Diego.
2/11 Drosophila RESEARCH CONFERENCES
Drosophila Research Conferences are held every year in North America and every other year in Europe and Japan. The North American meetings are organized by the Drosophila Board, an elected body which is playing an increasingly active role in the field. The European Drosophila Research Conferences and, since 1986, the North American Drosophila meetings publish books of abstracts of papers and posters presented. Electronic versions of the abstracts of the North American Conferences are available since 1998 on FlyBase. Information concerning these meetings can be obtained from any active fly laboratory.
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