Drosophila melanogaster is typically a commensal of humans and is frequently found wherever there are suitable breeding substrates, in particular rotting fruit. Populations tend to peak in the fall, when fruit crops typically ripen. For example in the Palaearctic large populations of D. melanogaster are found in orchards and vineyards, and on some soft fruits such as tomatoes. In temperate regions this species probably overwinters as fertilized adult females in a reproductive diapause, inhabiting protected micro-environments. Where conditions are simply too cold for this to occur populations probably die off every winter, to be repopulated by migration every spring or early summer.
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