Nest is a scrape. Clutch size 2-6 (4 typical.) Eggs are pinkish cream to rust brown in color with one egg laid every 24-48 hours. Both adults incubate though females will do majority. Incubation lasts 30-32 days. Young fledge at 40-42 days old. One brood per year though may renest if original clutch fails. Breeding typically by 2 years though possible at 1 year old. Longevity 17-20 years.
- Ehrlich, Dobkin and Wheye. 1988. The Birders Handbook. Fireside Publishing. 722 pages. (ISBN 0-671-65989-8)
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