“25. Callogorgia Gray, 1858
Callogorgia Gray, 1858:286.—Bayer, 1956:F220; 1961:294 [illustrated key to genus]; 1981b:938 [key to genus]; 1982:119–123 [in part: key to Indo-Pacific species, genus synonymy].—Bayer and Stefani, 1989:455 [key to genus].—Bayer, 1998:162–163.—Cairns and Bayer, 2002:841–845 [key to western Atlantic species].
Calligorgia Gray, 1870:35 [unjustified emendation].—Studer, 1887:51.
Callicella Gray, 1870:37.
Xiphocella Gray, 1870:56.
Caligorgia Wright and Studer, 1889:75–77 [in part; unjustified emendation].— Versluys 1906:55–58 [in part].—Kinoshita, 1908a:34.—Kükenthal, 1915:146 [key to genus and species]; 1919:362–366 [in part: key to species]; 1924:267–269 [in part: key to species].
Diagnosis. Colonies usually pinnately branched in an alternating manner (e.g., type species), dichotomously branched in one plane, or, rarely, opposite pinnately branched. Calyces arranged in whorls of up to 12, the appressed calyces facing upward (Figure 12a). Well-developed operculum present, the operculars ridged on their inner surface. Eight marginal scales present, which do not fold over operculars. Polyps protected by four to eight longitudinal rows of up to 12 body wall scales, the abaxials occurring in fully developed rows but lateral and adaxial scale rows progressively shorter toward adaxial side; in some species adaxial and even inner-lateral body wall scales absent, resulting in the lower adaxial body wall being naked. Outer surface of body wall scales smooth, granular, or covered with prominent radiating or reticulate ridges (Figure 12b); distal edge of inner surface of body wall scales radially ridged, these ridges sometimes continuous with the ridges of the outer surface. Coenenchymal scales arranged in one layer, outer surface usually granular.
Discussion. Many of the listings in the genus synonymy must be listed as “in part” because species now attributed to Fanellia were customarily placed in Callogorgia. The 26 valid species known in the genus are listed in Table 4, most of these keyed by either Bayer (1982) or Cairns and Bayer (2002), both of whom extensively discuss the characters used to identify species. Bayer (1982) distinguished two groups of species within the genus based on the sculpturing of the body wall scales (granular versus crested) but did not suggest taxonomic distinction at any level.
Distribution. Indo-Pacific, North Atlantic, 37–2,472 m.
Type Species. Callogorgia: Gorgonia verticillata Pallas, 1766, by monotypy. Type not traced. The type species was well described and illustrated by Carpine and Grasshoff (1975).
Callicella: C. elegans Gray, 1870, by monotypy. The dry types are deposited at the BM (19184.108.40.206, 8).
Xiphocella: Gorgonia verticillata sensu Esper, 1797, by monotypy. Type not traced.”
(Bayer & Cairns, 2009)