Common names: grouper (English), cabrilla (Espanol), mero (Espanol)
Epinephelus exsul (Fowler, 1944)
Ten-spine grouper, Black grouper
Body robust, compressed; rear nostril shaped like an inverted teardrop, larger than front nostril; end of top jaw exposed; operculum edge with 3 flat spines; preoperculum without spines; 24-27 gill rakers; dorsal fin X, 13-14, second & third spines long, 2nd the longest; anal fin with III spines, 9 rays; pectoral 18-20 rays; lateral line complete, ending at tail base, smoothly arched; scales rough, small, 64-68 on lateral line.
Adult: grey brown; juvenile grey-brown body and fins with large round white spots on body, and bases of dorsal and anal fins; dorsal, anal and pelvics darker than body; outer 2/3 of tail and pectoral fins pale; adults and juveniles with dark line along margin of top jaw.
Size: 125 cm.
Habitat: rocky habitat.
Depth: 35-450 m.
SE Gulf of California to Panama.