Common names: graysby (English), cabrilla (Espanol), mero (Espanol)
Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner, 1877)
Panama graysby, Panamic graysby, Pacific graysby
Robust oblong body; snout much longer than eye; flat to convex between the eyes; most of teeth movable; top jaw base with knob at rear; preopercle rounded, finely serrated, no spines or notch; rakers on first gill arch 16-19; dorsal fin IX, 14, membranes deeply notched between spines; anal rays III, 8; pectoral rays 17-18; pectoral fin symmetrically rounded, a scaly flap of skin joining upper part of inner side of pectoral base to body; tail base slender, its height < ½ body height; tail fin rounded; flank scales rough; body scales small.
Adult: Body pale grey-brown with ~ 9 dark bars across entire depth of body; head dark, with oblique pale bands and network of blue and orange spots, a large dark patch immediately behind eye; spinous dorsal fin pale with dark spines, soft dorsal dark, with pale line along base; tail and anal fins dark. Juvenile: body medium blue grey; lower head pale blue grey with orange spots and lines; nape and back under front half of spinous dorsal fin green; spinous dorsal green, soft dorsal blue grey; tail fin blue grey with black border.
Size: grows to 30.5 cm.
Habitat: perhaps the most abundant grouper in the region, inhabits rocky shores.
Depth: 1-75 m.
Gulf of California to Ecuador, including the Revillagigedos, Galapagos, Cocos and Malpelo.