Michael Stoddart in his 1971 study of water vole breeding and survival found that most voles disappear when they are between four and five months old. Only a few survived to two years.
- See http://www.jstor.org/pss/3257
- Stoddard, D. M. (1971), Breeding and Survival in a population of water voles, Journal of Animal Ecology 40:487-494.
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