Found on sandy or rubbly areas of reef flats and shallow lagoons and in small pools during low tide well camouflaged among the substrate and sometimes even covered with algae (Ref. 5213, 5503). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans. The dorsal fin has 2 grooves serving as seringes of venom; their stings are excruciatingly painful and can occasionally be fatal. A serum exists which is effective if applied immediately after the infliction. Uncommon in markets.
- Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.