The flowers attract long-tongued bees and butterflies, including Bombus spp. (Bumblebees) and the butterfly Pieris rapae (Cabbage White). The seeds are too small to be of any interest to birds, and it is unclear to what extent mammalian herbivores feed on the foliage. There have been attempts recently to release leaf beetles from Europe as a biocontrol measure. This species probably provides cover to some wetland species of birds because of its tall dense vegetation. Photographic Location
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