Cutleaf Toothwort is the only native Dentaria sp. (Toothwort) in Illinois. Other species of Toothwort can be found in areas to the east and north of Illinois, including Indiana. The species Dentaria diphylla (Two-Leaved Toothwort) has been observed in Kane County, Illinois, where it is probably adventive. This latter species has two cauline leaves on each flowering stalk, while Cutleaf Toothwort usually has three. Both the basal and cauline leaves of Two-Leaved Toothwort have broader lobes than those found on the leaves of Cutleaf Toothwort. Some authorities have merged the Toothworts into the genus Cardamine (Bitter Cress), in which case the scientific name of Cutleaf Toothwort is Cardamine concatenata.
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