The genus Astyanax Baird & Girard ZBK comprises approximately one-hundred valid species, occurring from southern United States of America to northern Patagonia in Argentina (Miquelarena & Menni, 2005). It is probable, however, that this genus, like several other genera included within the Characidae (e.g. Hyphessobrycon , Moenkhausia ZBK , Bryconamericus ZBK , Hemigrammus ), is not monophyletic (Weitzman & Fink, 1983; Zanata, 1997; Weitzman & Malabarba, 1998; Lima et al., 2003; Castro & Vari, 2004).
- Lucila C. Protogino, Amalia M. Miquelarena, Hugo L. López (2006): A new species of Astyanax (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae), with breeding tubercles, from the Paraná and Uruguay river basins. Zootaxa 1297, 1-16: 2-2, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8B4411D9-087E-4182-81EF-23D764E0FE27
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