Stewardship Overview: As determined by North American Breeding Bird Survey, population is declining, particularly at the northern edge of its range. Factors contributing to the decline are unknown, but could include loss of breeding structures, prolonged cold or wet weather that could result in starvation of nestlings, or unidentified threats on the wintering grounds. Reproduction requires a combination of suitable nesting habitat and an abundance of flying insects. Management includes retaining chimneys as habitat and the construction of artificial nesting/roosting structures. Need to implement population monitoring programs to supplement data collected during Breeding Bird Surveys.
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