Degree of Threat: C : Not very threatened throughout its range, communities often provide natural resources that when exploited alter the composition and structure over the short-term, or communities are self-protecting because they are unsuitable for other uses
Comments: The greatest threat is the continual loss and fragmentation of breeding and wintering habitat. Specific effects caused by habitat alterations are not clearly understood. Possible effects include increased nest predation by edge species (e.g., raccoons, domestic cats, etc.) and increased cowbird parasitism. Little is known of the relationship between the tanager and its habitat features, especially where habitat manipulations are occurring. Identifying specific threats affecting this species is difficult due to this lack of information. A common host to the brown-headed cowbird (MOLOTHRUS ATER) and the most parasitized of the tanager family. Adult tanagers seem to recognize female cowbirds as enemies and usually attack on sight (Terres 1980, Prescott 1965). Friedmann (1963) stated that this tanager is not among the primary cowbird hosts. Known predators include screech owl (OTUS ASIO), barred owl (STRIX VARIA), long-eared owl (ASIO OTUS), short-eared owl (ASIO FLAMMEUS), blue jay (CYANOCITTA CRISTATA), American crow (CORVUS BRACHYRHYNCHOS), and Merlin (FALCO COLUMBARIUS) (Senesac 1993, Prescott 1965). In addition, suspected predators include gray (SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS), red (TAMIASCIURUS HUDSONICUS), and fox (SCIURUS NIGRA) squirrels and chipmunks (TAMIAS spp.) (Senesac 1993).
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