Clutch size is 2-5 (usually 3-4). Two to 3, sometimes 4 broods (in south) per year. Incubation 11-13 days, usually by female. Young tended by both parents, leave nest at 9-11 days, independent at 38-45 days. Renests rapidly in response to nest predation (Filliater et al. 1994). Monogamous.
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