NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Widespread in the Atlantic Ocean, distribution elsewhere is uncertain; historically ranged in the western Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina (rarely New York), Bermuda, and the northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil; now rare in the U.S., though this population appears to be the largest in the western Atlantic; vulnerable to overexploitation due to high propensity for entanglement in net gear, restricted habitat, and low intrinsic rate of increase; available evidence indicates a large decline in North America, likely due mainly to incidental commercial catch but habitat degradation probably also is involved; current range-wide status is poorly documented, hence the rank of G1G3 (species definitely warrants conservation concern, and perhaps is critically imperiled rangewide).
Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly vulnerable
Comments: Based on the low intrinsic rate of increase, resulting from their slow growth, late maturation, and low
fecundity, population recovery potential for the species is limited.
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