G. sanguineum is a planktonic species common in estuarine and coastal waters. This cosmopolitan species is a bloom-former associated with shellfish and fish kills. The first G. sanguineum red tide was reported from Kozusa-ura, Gokasho Bay, Japan. Red tide events caused by this species have since been recorded from other coastal regions of Japan. It is a common red tide bloom species in Australian and New Zealand coastal waters as well. G. sanguineum is a common red tide species in the Chesapeake Bay where levels as high as 8.8 X 105 cells/L have been reported. One bloom in Coyote Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico, cell densities reached 1.0 X 105 cells/L. Robinson and Brown (1983) and Voltolina (1993) observed possible sexual stages of G. sanguineum from a recurrent bloom. They speculate that this species may form resting cysts to reseed a region in the next bloom season. Nakamura et al. (1982) reported that cultures of G. sanguineum can tolerate a wide range of temperatures (13-24 ºC) and salinities (15-35 o/oo).
- Bockstahler, K.R. & D.W. Coats 1993. Spatial and temporal aspects of mixotrophy in Chesapeake Bay dinoflagellates. J. Euk. Microbiol. 40: 49-60.
- Fukuyo, Y., H. Takano, M. Chihara & K. Matsuoka 1990. Red Tide Organisms in Japan. An Illustrated Taxonomic Guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 407 pp.
- Hallegraeff, G.M. 1991. Aquaculturists Guide to Harmful Australian Microalgae. Fishing Industry Training Board of Tasmania/CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Hobart, 111 pp.
- Hirasaka, K. 1922. On a case of discolored sea-water. Annot. Zool. Jap. X(15): 161-164.
- Kiefer, D.A. & R. Lasker 1975. Two blooms of Gymnodinium splendens, an unarmored dinoflagellate. Fish. Bull. 73: 675-678.
- Nakamura, Y., M. Watanabe & M. Watanabe 1982. The effect of various environmental factors on the growth yield of red tide algae. III. Gymnodinium splendens. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud. 30: 87-93.
- Robinson, M.G.& L.N. Brown 1983. A recurrent red tide in a British Columbian coastal lagoon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40: 2135-2143.
- Voltolina, D. 1993. The origin of recurrent blooms of Gymnodinium sanguineum Hirasaka in a shallow coastal lagoon. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 168: 217-222.
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