Amanita pantherina contains many of the same toxic, psychoactive compounds as Amanita muscaria in similar concentrations, including isoxazoles such as ibotenic acid (IBO) and muscamol.1, 10, 14 Muscamol binds to γ-aminobutyric recepters, producing a mild sedative effect, while IBO serves as an excitatory amino acid, which binds to glutamine receptors, resulting in feelings of agitation and delirium.4 Symptoms of poisoning from this species typically begin within an hour and can include anxiety, hallucinations, impaired speech, nausea, seizures, and a deep coma-like sleep.4 However, symptoms typically disappear within 6 hours of consumption in mild cases.11 Effects may vary depending on the amount ingested. However, while still toxic, death very rarely occurs as a result of Amanita pantherina consumption. Hospitalization and symptomatic care as needed will help treat a victim suffering from Amanita pantherina poisoning.4
- 1. Atkinson, George Francis. (2008, August 30). Studies of American Fungi. Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, etc. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/26492/26492-h/26492-h.htm
- 4. Halpern, John H. (2004). “Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States.” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 102, 131-138.
- 10. Persson, Hans. (2007). “Mushrooms.” Medicine, 35(12), 635-637.
- 11. Satora, Leszek, et. al. (2006). “Panther cap Amanita pantherina poisoning case report and review.” Toxicon, 47, 605-607.
- 14. Tsujikawa, Kenji et. al. (2007). “Determination of muscimol and ibotenic acid in Amanita mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.” Journal of Chromatography B, 852, 430-435.
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