Indian Ocean and western Pacific from Japan to Australia. Anguilliform. Caudal pointed or bluntly rounded. Barbels usually 4 pairs. Adipose fin absent. Caudal fin rays may be far advanced along dorsal. Lower procurrent caudal rays confluent with long anal fin. Branchiostegal rays 7-14. Some can cause painful injury. Marine species = ISSCAAP 39; freshwater species = ISSCAAP 13.
- MASDEA (1997).