Length: 55-66 cm. Plumage: white or blackish with white chin; two long narrow plumes on occiput, scapular aigrettes and long lanceolate feathers on breast. Immature dark morph lighter grey than adult. Bare parts: iris pale yellow; facial skin yellow; bill heavy and deep and appears to droop, yellow, pinkish brown, horn brown, or brownish olive; feet and legs olive brown or dark olive in white morph, dark brown or brownish olive in dark morph. Habitat: coastal reefs, mangroves, estuaries, and creeks. <388><391>
- Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.