Length: 48-66 cm. Plumage: slaty-black; heavy, shaggy crest. Immature like adult but duller without head-plumes. Bare parts: iris: bright yellow (or dark brown<391>); facial skin: eye-ring and lores yellow, green or powder blue in breeding bird ; bill black; feet and legs black with yellow to orange feet which become red in breeding season. Habitat: edges of estuarine and inland waters. Forms canopy over head with wings when feeding. <388><393><391>
- Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.