Troglodytes monticola is endemic to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, where it is known from collections made in 1922, one record in the upper rÃo FrÃo Valley at 3,600 m, where a pair was observed and tape-recorded in a small montane forest patch (c.2 ha) amidst heavily burned and overgrazed pÃ¡ramo (R. Strewe in litt. 2003), and 17 individuals located in a targeted search in 2011 (Luna and Quevedo 2012). Searches on the southern slopes and at the only other intact forest patch in the area failed to locate the species (R. Strewe in litt. 2003, FundaciÃ³n ProAves de Colombia 2011), however in December 2011 the species was photographed for the first time and a total of 17 individuals were observed in three days along a 3 km stretch (Luna and Quevedo 2012). The lack of recent reports may partly reflect the fact that the species is not found in the only area of the Santa Marta massif regularly visited (Ridgely and Tudor 1989).